“Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting; objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives and measuring results” (Uncw.edu, 2014)
“Leadership is a process of social influence which maximizes the efforts of others, towards the achievement of a goal” (Kruse, 2013)
From the definitions above, it can be deduced that management and leadership have to co-exist, but are different in each right. A manager’s job is to plan, manage and co-ordinate while a leader’s job is to inspire his team and motivate them. (The Wall Street Journal, 2014). In terms of personality, leaders tend to have a high level of imagination while managers are usually rational, unlike leaders who take risks, managers would rather be under control and be certain of the outcome from situations, they are averse to risk. Managers see outcomes as results, whereas leaders look at it as achievements.
Leaders take on problems by proffering creative solutions, they motivate people to excel at problem solving, and leaders have followers whilst managers have sub-ordinates. Managers take on problems by creating strategic methods to ensure that the problem is solved; as this is a more specific approach, which they believe, helps reduce risk. (Diffen.com, 2014)
Below is a diagram showing some more differences between Leaders and Managers (Bosses)
The Chartered Management Institute have stated that the best approach to managing the work of sub-ordinates may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI,2013). I would agree with this because there are different styles of management and leadership that are tailored to every individual. As we have learned from the blog post on diversity, every person is different and unique in their own way, so how a leader or manager would handle works of their followers or sub-ordinates would certainly differ. To further explain this, let us look into some theories on leadership and management styles.
Though there are so many theories on leadership and management styles, they have all been born from four major theory groups, namely:
- Trait Theories
- Behavioral Theories
- Contingency Theories
- Power and Influence Theories
The Trait theories are of the notion that great leaders share a number of common traits. Traits such as assertiveness, integrity, decision-making etc. possessing all these traits does not necessarily mean instance success as a leader. (Mindtools.com, 2014)
This is to do with the behavior of leaders. A popular framework by Kurt Lewin says there are three kinds of leaders:
- Autocratic Leaders (they make decisions without consulting team members)
- Democratic Leaders (they consult team members and appreciate input before decision making)
- Laissez-Faire Leaders (they allow team members make many decisions)
This theory is based on leadership styles being dependent on a situation/circumstance. Some of these contingency theories are Path Goal theory, Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership theory. (Mindtools.com, 2014)
Power and Influence Theories
This theory is based on various ways leaders get work done through the influence and power they wield. Examples are French and Raven’s five forms of Power, which are Coercive, Reward, Legitimate, Expert and Referent Power.
Below is a video explaining what makes a good leader
A theorist named Rensis Likert carried out research at the University of Michigan and came up with four styles of management:
- Exploitative/Authoritative: Here, manager does not have confidence in his sub-ordinates, to ensure that work gets done; he tends to instill fear in them, which works as motivation. (CMI, 2013)
- Benevolent/Authoritative: Here, the manager has some level of trust in his sub-ordinates yet treats them disdainfully. (CMI, 2013)
- Consultative: Here, the manager trusts his sub-ordinates, not completely, listens to suggestions, but makes the decisions solely. (CMI, 2013)
- Participative: The manager trusts his sub-ordinates totally, listens to their ideas and implements them; also they are included in setting objectives. (CMI, 2013)
In agreement to the Chartered Management Institute, there is not one specific leading style that is the best but to be an effective leader I would suggest that the contingency theory which is leadership based on a situation/circumstance be applied.
List of References
CMI (Chartered Management Institute), (2013). Management Articles of the Year. First. London: Charted Management Institute.
Diffen.com, (2014) Leadership Vs Management – Difference and Comparison [Online] Available at: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Leadership_vs_Management [Accessed 15 June 2014]
The Wall Street Journal, (2014) What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership? – Management [Online] Available at: http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-is-the-difference-between-management-and-leadership/ [Accessed 17 June 2014]
Kruse, K. (2013) What is Leadership? [Online] Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/04/09/what-is-leadership/ [Accessed 17 June 2014]
Mindtools.com (2014) Core Leadership Theories: Learning the Foundations of Leadership. [Online] Available at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/leadership-theories.htm [Accessed 17 June 2014]
Uncw.edu (2014). Management: Career: UNCW [Online] Available at: http://uncw.edu/career/management.html [Accessed 17 June 2014]
YouTube, (2014). What is Leadership? Learn What Makes a Good Leader. [Online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XixkUiRy1Fg [Accessed 17 Jun.2014]